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Sustainability Explore how we work to bring about a more sustainable world. Most of Indonesia's railways are located in Java, used for both passenger and freight transport. The inter-city rail network is complemented by local commuter rail services in Greater Jakarta , Surabaya and Bandung. Mass rapid transit and light rail transit systems are currently under construction in Jakarta and Palembang,   and a plan to build a high-speed rail was announced in , the first in Southeast Asia. Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno—Hatta International Airport is the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere , serving 63 million passengers in Garuda Indonesia , the country's flag carrier since , is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam.
In , Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with Jatiluhur Dam , the country's largest dam, serves several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0. However, there are several examples of notable scientific and technological developments by Indonesians.
Living in agrarian and maritime culture, they have been famous in some traditional technologies.
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In the former, as with other nations in Southeast Asia, they are famous in paddy cultivation technique, terasering. Bugis and Makassar people are well known in the latter, making wooden sailing vessel called pinisi boats. It later became widely used in several countries. Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to produce and develop its own aircraft.
With state-owned aircraft company, the Indonesian Aerospace PT. Habibie played an important role in this achievement. In the s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own satellite system called Palapa. Since January , Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of an international marketing campaign directed by the Ministry of Tourism to promote tourism.
Nature and culture are major attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of tropical climate, vast archipelago and long stretch of beaches, and are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve.
The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja and Bali , with its Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism. Other activities include visiting museums, churches, forts and historical colonial buildings, as well as spending some nights in colonial heritage hotels. The popular heritage tourism attractions include the Jakarta Old Town and the royal Javanese courts of Yogyakarta , Surakarta and the Mangkunegaran.
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The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranks Indonesia 42nd out of countries overall with a score of 4. It states that Indonesia has a strong visa policy and scored well on international openness ranked 2nd and 17th respectively. The country also scores well on natural and cultural resources ranked 17th and 23rd respectively. However, Indonesia has a low score in infrastructure ranked 96th , as some aspects of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped. The census recorded Indonesia's population as The population is unevenly spread throughout the islands within a variety of habitats and levels of development , ranging from the megalopolis of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.
Indonesia is a very ethnically diverse country, with around distinct native ethnic groups. The Sundanese , Batak and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. The country's official language is Indonesian , a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect , which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. It was promoted by nationalists in the s , and declared the official language under the name Bahasa Indonesia in Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than local languages,  often as their first language.
Some belong to the Austronesian language family , while over Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia. In , Dutch and other Europeans Totok , Eurasians , and derivative people like the Indos , numbered , or 0. Despite the Dutch presence for almost years, the Dutch language has no official status  and the small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession,  as certain law codes are still only available in Dutch.
While religious freedom is stipulated in the constitution,   the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam , Protestantism , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism ;  although indigenous faiths are also recognised. Ten out of 15 national holidays in are related to religion.
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Prior to the arrival of Hinduism, Buddhism and Abrahamic religions, the natives of the Indonesian archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people. They have had significant impact on how other faiths are practiced, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan , Balinese Hindus , and Dayak Christians—practicing a less orthodox , syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit , Sailendra , Srivijaya and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture.
Islam was introduced to the archipelago by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula. Catholicism was brought to the archipelago by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier , who visited and baptised several thousand locals. In present-day Flores , the royal house of Larantuka formed the only native Catholic kingdom in Southeast Asia around 16th century, with the first king named Lorenzo.
Education in Indonesia is compulsory for 12 years. Andalas University is pioneering the establishment of a leading university outside of Java.
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3. In recent decades, health indicators have significantly improved such as rising life expectancy from 63 in to 71 in and declining child mortality from 84 deaths per 1, births in to 27 deaths in This has created a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres such as Sumatra and Java and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas such as Maluku and Papua. In , the Chinese Christian governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama was sentenced to two years in prison after being found guilty of blasphemy.
Cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Influences from the Indian subcontinent , mainland China , the Middle East , Europe ,   and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious make-up of the archipelago. As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society,   with complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures.
Indonesia currently holds 9 items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage , which include wayang puppet theatre , kris , batik , education and training on making Indonesian batik, angklung , saman dance , noken , and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance. Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries, and a recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India , the Arab world , China and Europe , as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.
Megalithic sculpture has been discovered on several sites in Indonesia. Between the 8th and 15th century, Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that has brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.
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The most dominant influence has traditionally been Indian ; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant. Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' rumah adat styles have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements of the numerous ethnic groups of Indonesia vary widely and have their own specific history.