An estimated 5 million women in India joined forces to form a human chain to protest gender inequality and a Hindu temple's centuries-old ban on all women of "menstruating age. Women are harassed every 30 seconds on Twitter, major study finds. After the formation of the protest, two women entered the temple for the first time following the lifting of the ban by the Supreme Court in September Per the BBC, protesters have since attacked women who've attempted to enter the temple.
Indian women stand in a line to take part in a "women's wall" protest in Kochi in southern Kerala state on January 1, According to the Guardian, the two women who entered the temple have been named by local media as Bindu and Kanaka Durga. The pair attempted to access the temple in December but were prevented by "right wing Hindu protesters determined to uphold the ban.
Pictures from the WomenWall VanithaMathil pic. It is believed that the greater the amount of the Quran memorized, the greater the faith. As technology improved over time, hearing recitations of Quran became more available as well as more tools to help memorize the verses. The tradition of Love Poetry served as a symbolic representation of a Muslim's desire for a closer contact with their Lord.
While the influence of the Quran on Arabic poetry is explained and defended by numerous writers, some writers such as Al- Baqillani believe that poetry and the Quran are in no conceivable way related due to the uniqueness of the Quran. Poetry's imperfections prove his points that they cannot be compared with the fluency the Quran holds. Classical Arabic is the language of poetry and literature including news ; it is also mainly the language of the Quran.
Classical Arabic is closely associated with the religion of Islam because the Quran was written in it. Most of the world's Muslims do not speak Classical Arabic as their native language, but many can read the Quranic script and recite the Quran. Among non-Arab Muslims, translations of the Quran are most often accompanied by the original text. Some Muslims present a monogenesis of languages and claim that the Arabic language was the language revealed by God for the benefit of mankind and the original language as a prototype system of symbolic communication, based upon its system of triconsonantal roots, spoken by man from which all other languages were derived, having first been corrupted.
Colloquial Arabic is a collective term for the spoken dialects of Arabic used throughout the Arab world , which differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the varieties within and outside of the Arabian peninsula, followed by that between sedentary varieties and the much more conservative Bedouin varieties. All of the varieties outside of the Arabian peninsula which include the large majority of speakers have a large number of features in common with each other that are not found in Classical Arabic.
This has led researchers to postulate the existence of a prestige koine dialect in the one or two centuries immediately following the Arab conquest, whose features eventually spread to all of the newly conquered areas. These features are present to varying degrees inside the Arabian peninsula. Generally, the Arabian peninsula varieties have much more diversity than the non-peninsula varieties, but have been understudied. Within the non-peninsula varieties, the largest difference is between the non-Egyptian North African dialects especially Moroccan Arabic and the others.
Moroccan Arabic in particular is hardly comprehensible to Arabic speakers east of Libya although the converse is not true, in part due to the popularity of Egyptian films and other media. One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention or change of meaning of different classical forms.
Transcription is a broad IPA transcription , so minor differences were ignored for easier comparison. Also, the pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic differs significantly from region to region. According to Charles A. Although many other features are common to most or all of these varieties, Ferguson believes that these features in particular are unlikely to have evolved independently more than once or twice and together suggest the existence of the koine:. Of the 29 Proto-Semitic consonants, only one has been lost: Various other consonants have changed their sound too, but have remained distinct.
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Other changes may also have happened. Classical Arabic pronunciation is not thoroughly recorded and different reconstructions of the sound system of Proto-Semitic propose different phonetic values. One example is the emphatic consonants, which are pharyngealized in modern pronunciations but may have been velarized in the eighth century and glottalized in Proto-Semitic. Early Akkadian transcriptions of Arabic names shows that this reduction had not yet occurred as of the early part of the 1st millennium BC.
The Classical Arabic language as recorded was a poetic koine that reflected a consciously archaizing dialect, chosen based on the tribes of the western part of the Arabian Peninsula , who spoke the most conservative variants of Arabic. Most of these changes are present in most or all modern varieties of Arabic. An interesting feature of the writing system of the Quran and hence of Classical Arabic is that it contains certain features of Muhammad's native dialect of Mecca, corrected through diacritics into the forms of standard Classical Arabic. Although Classical Arabic was a unitary language and is now used in Quran, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country.
It is influenced by colloquial dialects.
The "colloquial" spoken dialects of Arabic are learned at home and constitute the native languages of Arabic speakers. Both varieties can be both written and spoken, although the colloquial varieties are rarely written down and the formal variety is spoken mostly in formal circumstances, e.
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Even when the literary language is spoken, however, it is normally only spoken in its pure form when reading a prepared text out loud and communication between speakers of different colloquial dialects. When speaking extemporaneously i. In fact, there is a continuous range of "in-between" spoken varieties: The particular variant or register used depends on the social class and education level of the speakers involved and the level of formality of the speech situation. Often it will vary within a single encounter, e.
This type of variation is characteristic of the diglossia that exists throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Although Modern Standard Arabic MSA is a unitary language, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country. The variation in individual "accents" of MSA speakers tends to mirror corresponding variations in the colloquial speech of the speakers in question, but with the distinguishing characteristics moderated somewhat.
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Note that it is important in descriptions of "Arabic" phonology to distinguish between pronunciation of a given colloquial spoken dialect and the pronunciation of MSA by these same speakers. Although they are related, they are not the same. Another reason of different pronunciations is influence of colloquial dialects.
The differentiation of pronunciation of colloquial dialects is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, Berber , Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic , Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian in Yemen and Oman, Aramaic and Canaanite languages including Phoenician in the Levant and Mesopotamia.
In many spoken varieties, the backed or "emphatic" vowel allophones spread a fair distance in both directions from the triggering consonant; in some varieties most notably Egyptian Arabic , the "emphatic" allophones spread throughout the entire word, usually including prefixes and suffixes, even at a distance of several syllables from the triggering consonant.
Speakers of colloquial varieties with this vowel harmony tend to introduce it into their MSA pronunciation as well, but usually with a lesser degree of spreading than in the colloquial varieties. For example, speakers of colloquial varieties with extremely long-distance harmony may allow a moderate, but not extreme, amount of spreading of the harmonic allophones in their MSA speech, while speakers of colloquial varieties with moderate-distance harmony may only harmonize immediately adjacent vowels in MSA.
There are also two diphthongs: The pronunciation of the vowels differs from speaker to speaker, in a way that tends to reflect the pronunciation of the corresponding colloquial variety. Nonetheless, there are some common trends. The point is, Arabic has only three short vowel phonemes, so those phonemes can have a very wide range of allophones. The definition of both "emphatic" and "neighborhood" vary in ways that reflect to some extent corresponding variations in the spoken dialects.
Many dialects have multiple emphatic allophones of each vowel, depending on the particular nearby consonants. In most MSA accents, emphatic coloring of vowels is limited to vowels immediately adjacent to a triggering consonant, although in some it spreads a bit farther: Generally this corresponds with the pronunciation in the colloquial dialects. In fact, it also exists in a few other minority Semitic languages, e. This simultaneous articulation is described as "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists. Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long.
Long geminate consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription i. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants. This consonant lengthening is phonemically contrastive: Arabic has two kinds of syllables: The syllable types with two morae units of time , i. Superheavy syllables in Classical Arabic occur in only two places: There are no cases of hiatus within a word where two vowels occur next to each other, without an intervening consonant.
When actually pronounced, one of three things happens:. Word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic. It bears a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules for Modern Standard Arabic are:. Doubled consonants count as two consonants: These rules may result in differently stressed syllables when final case endings are pronounced, vs.
Some dialects have different stress rules.
This also affects the way that Modern Standard Arabic is pronounced in Egypt. In the Arabic of Sanaa , stress is often retracted: In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed. The final short vowels e. The following levels of pronunciation exist:.
This is the most formal level actually used in speech.
All endings are pronounced as written, except at the end of an utterance, where the following changes occur:. This is a formal level of pronunciation sometimes seen. It is somewhat like pronouncing all words as if they were in pausal position with influence from the colloquial varieties. The following changes occur:. This is the pronunciation used by speakers of Modern Standard Arabic in extemporaneous speech, i. It is similar to formal short pronunciation except that the rules for dropping final vowels apply even when a clitic suffix is added.