Noted railroad historian and steam engine owner Gerald M. Best served as engineering consultant to the Park Service for the project.
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Former Disney animator Ward Kimball was given the task of painting the replicas. The replicas were completed in , and began operations on May 10 of that year, years after the original Golden Spike ceremony, and continue to make demonstration runs. In the early s, a vague description of the Jupiter ' s livery had been found in a recently uncovered March, issue of The Sacramento Bee , in which the engine was said to be blue, crimson, and gold.
The repainted engine debuted on May 10, , coinciding with the th anniversary of the Golden Spike ceremony. Jupiter was known as "King of Gods" or "God of Sky", and it was common for railroads of the s to name engines after this and other mythological legends to invoke awe and wonder.
Thus, there have been many engines named "Jupiter" by their respective railroads that, apart from the name, had little else in common with the engine of Golden Spike fame. One such engine is Santa Cruz Railroad no. However, this engine was built for narrow-gauge track, unlike the broader standard gauge of the trains at the Golden Spike ceremony. In , Kloke Locomotive Works built a full-size replica of one of the Jupiter' s sibling engines, the Leviathan , no. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Jupiter replica at Golden Spike N. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Trains portal Utah portal. Walt Disney's Railroad Story: The Donning Company Publishers.
Rebirth of the Jupiter and the Building the Replica Locomotives at Golden Spike. Retrieved August 17, Plans for the Jupiter and No.
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Western National Parks Association. Retrieved 1 February Golden Spike National Historic Site The Story of Jupiter and No. Nonetheless, the experiment was considered a resounding success and the data acquired will likely be used in the future to design laser "downlinks" which will send large volumes of data very quickly from spacecraft to Earth.
The scheme was already being studied as of for a data link to a future Mars orbiting spacecraft. False color mosaic by Galileo showing compositional variations of the Moon's surface. Galileo 's star scanner was a small optical telescope that provided an absolute attitude reference. It also made several scientific discoveries serendipitously. A second discovery occurred in The star scanner was observing a set of stars which included the second magnitude star Delta Velorum. At one point, this star dimmed for 8 hours below the star scanner's detection threshold.
Subsequent analysis of Galileo data and work by amateur and professional astronomers showed that Delta Velorum is the brightest known eclipsing binary , brighter at maximum than even Algol. A final discovery occurred during the last two orbits of the mission. When the spacecraft passed the orbit of Jupiter's moon Amalthea , the star scanner detected unexpected flashes of light that were reflections from moonlets. None of the individual moonlets were reliably sighted twice, hence no orbits were determined and the moonlets did not meet the International Astronomical Union requirements to receive designations.
Several pictures of Gaspra were taken, along with measurements using the NIMS instrument to indicate composition and physical properties. The last two images were relayed back to Earth in November and June The imagery revealed a cratered and very irregular body, measuring about 19 by 12 by 11 kilometers The remainder of data taken, including low-resolution images of more of the surface, were transmitted in late November The probe discovered that Ida had a small moon, dubbed Dactyl, measuring around 1.
Some of the mission challenges that had to be overcome included intense radiation at Jupiter and hardware wear-and-tear, as well as dealing with unexpected technical difficulties. Jupiter's uniquely harsh radiation environment caused over 20 anomalies over the course of Galileo 's mission, in addition to the incidents expanded upon below.
Despite exceeding its radiation design limit by at least a factor of three, the spacecraft survived all these anomalies. Work-arounds were found eventually for all of these problems, and Galileo was never rendered entirely non-functional by Jupiter's radiation. The radiation limits for Galileo 's computers were based off data returned from Pioneers 10 and 11 , since much of the design work was underway before the two Voyagers arrived at Jupiter in The SSI camera began producing totally white images when the spacecraft was hit by the exceptional 'Bastille Day' coronal mass ejection in , and did so again on subsequent close approaches to Jupiter.
The quartz crystal used as the frequency reference for the radio suffered permanent frequency shifts with each Jupiter approach.
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A spin detector failed, and the spacecraft gyro output was biased by the radiation environment. The most severe effect of the radiation were current leakages somewhere in the spacecraft's power bus, most likely across brushes at a spin bearing connecting rotor and stator sections of the orbiter. These current leakages triggered a reset of the onboard computer and caused it to go into safe mode. The resets occurred when the spacecraft was either close to Jupiter or in the region of space magnetically downstream of the Earth.
A change to the software was made in April that allowed the onboard computer to detect these resets and autonomously recover, so as to avoid safe mode. Galileo 's high-gain antenna failed to fully deploy after its first flyby of Earth. Only 15 popped out, leaving the antenna looking like a lop-sided, half-open umbrella. Investigators concluded that during the 4. The antenna lubricants were not checked or replaced before launch.
To fix this malfunction, engineers tried thermal-cycling the antenna, rotating the spacecraft up to its maximum spin rate of The associated problem mission managers faced was if one rib popped free, there would be increased pressure on the remaining two, and if one of them popped out the last would be under so much pressure it would never release. The second part of the problem was due to Galileo 's revised flight plan.
The probe had never been intended to approach the Sun any closer than the orbit of Earth, but sending it to Venus would expose it to temperatures at least 50 degrees higher than at Earth distance. So the probe had to be protected from that extra heat, part of which involved adapting some of the computer functions. Forty-one device drivers had been programmed into the computer, but with no room for any more, the mission planners had to decide which driver they could use in association with the heat protection. They chose the antenna motor reverse driver.
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At the same time, measurements were made of Jupiter's magnetosphere and transmitted back to Earth. The failure of Galileo 's high-gain antenna meant that data storage to the tape recorder for later compression and playback was absolutely crucial in order to obtain any substantial information from the flybys of Jupiter and its moons. In October , Galileo 's four-track, megabyte digital tape recorder,  which was manufactured by Odetics Corporation , remained stuck in rewind mode for 15 hours before engineers learned what had happened and sent commands to shut it off.
Though the recorder itself was still in working order, the malfunction possibly damaged a length of tape at the end of the reel. This section of tape was subsequently declared "off limits" to any future data recording, and was covered with 25 more turns of tape to secure the section and reduce any further stresses, which could tear it.
Because it happened only weeks before Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter, the anomaly prompted engineers to sacrifice data acquisition of almost all of the Io and Europa observations during the orbit insertion phase, in order to focus solely on recording data sent from the Jupiter probe descent. In November , after the completion of the mission's only encounter with Jupiter's moon Amalthea , problems with playback of the tape recorder again plagued Galileo. About 10 minutes after the closest approach of the Amalthea flyby, Galileo stopped collecting data, shut down all of its instruments, and went into safe mode , apparently as a result of exposure to Jupiter's intense radiation environment.
Though most of the Amalthea data was already written to tape, it was found that the recorder refused to respond to commands telling it to play back data. The GaAs LEDs had been particularly sensitive to proton-irradiation-induced atomic lattice displacement defects, which greatly decreased their effective light output and caused the drive motor's electronics to falsely believe the motor encoder wheel was incorrectly positioned.
Galileo 's flight team then began a series of " annealing " sessions, where current was passed through the LEDs for hours at a time to heat them to a point where some of the crystalline lattice defects would be shifted back into place, thus increasing the LED's light output. After about hours of annealing and playback cycles, the recorder was able to operate for up to an hour at a time.
After many subsequent playback and cooling cycles, the complete transmission back to Earth of all recorded Amalthea flyby data was successful. The atmospheric probe deployed its parachute fifty-three seconds later than anticipated, resulting in a small loss of upper atmospheric readings.
This was attributed to wiring problems with an accelerometer that determined when to begin the parachute deployment sequence. Two years of Jupiter's intense radiation took its toll on the spacecraft's systems, and its fuel supply was running low in the early s.
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Galileo had not been sterilized prior to launch and could have carried bacteria from Earth. Therefore, a plan was formulated to send the probe directly into Jupiter, in an intentional crash to eliminate the possibility of any impact with Jupiter's moons and prevent a forward contamination. While Galileo was operating, Cassini—Huygens coasted by the planet in en route to Saturn, and it also collected data on Jupiter. Ulysses passed by Jupiter in and on its mission to study the Sun's polar regions.
New Horizons also passed close by Jupiter in for a gravity assist en route to Pluto, and it too collected data on the planet. The next mission to orbit Jupiter was the Juno spacecraft in July NASA's Juno spacecraft, launched in and planned for a two-year tour of the Jovian system, successfully completed Jupiter orbital insertion on July 4, This led to the Europa Clipper being approved in ; it is currently planned for launch in the mids. Investigators and researchers came from the following institutions, and included famous scientists such as Carl Sagan and James Van Allen.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Jupiter probe. For the navigation satellites, see Galileo satellite navigation.
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Artist's concept of Galileo at Io with Jupiter in the background; the high-gain antenna is fully deployed. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Galileo is prepared for release from Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Inertial Upper Stage white is attached. Timeline of Galileo spacecraft. The four Galilean moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Enhanced top image shows the halo of ring particles suspended by Jupiter's powerful electromagnetic field.
Jupiter portal Spaceflight portal. Retrieved December 18, The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report.