After five days no one had uploaded a single video, so he and the other co-founders, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim, reconsidered. They knew they had something with the underlying technology that made it easy for people to upload videos to the Internet. The matchmaking element, though short-lived, was perhaps always in the cards.
Chen said the founders registered the domain name YouTube on February 14, more than a decade ago. Clearly, the pivot paid off. The service has also expanded to include a subscription site, YouTube Red, and a dedicated gaming site. The service is a live-video site dedicated to food, where chefs can broadcast themselves cooking a meal or foodies can stream the scene in front of a taco truck.
The app launched last week. Be respectful, keep it civil and stay on topic. We delete comments that violate our policy , which we encourage you to read. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the " Kony " video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to Kony's demise than all other action combined.
Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House 's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in  and in a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson 's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act Obamacare -compliant health insurance. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare  but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation".
Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.
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The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers  and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra  selected their membership based on individual video performances. Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy. YouTube deleted 30 music videos after the complaint. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in were noted as " not material " in a regulatory filing.
The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox , and Disney. There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers. In , YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos.
Users of the YPP can have their videos "demonetized" if YouTube feels that the content is not advertiser-friendly. If a video receives this status, ad revenue will be canceled for the video in question, and the video will have a yellow coin symbol in the Partner's YouTube dashboard. Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features.
Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos , content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike.
Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.
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YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".
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Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. In August , a US court ruled in Lenz v. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her month-old son dancing to Prince 's song " Let's Go Crazy ", and posted the second video on YouTube. In April , a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users.
YouTube responded by stating:. We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG. In June , YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright.
Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom , which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. By , YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology". An independent test in uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.
Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute.
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YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines". Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users.
Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. In October , U. YouTube's policies on " advertiser-friendly content " restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".
DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators". In March , the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.
Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear". The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video. On April 6, , YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10, lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.
1. PayPal's Role in YouTube's Creation
In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm", as well as pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children. YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse.
When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints. In , it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites and hate preachers who received ad payouts. Alex Jones , known for far-right conspiracy theories, has built a massive audience on YouTube. In , YouTube was associated with several controversies related to child safety. During Q2, the owners of popular channel DaddyOFive , which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse.
Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody.
Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term " Elsagate " was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.