Results showed that different sowing date and weed control methods had significant effect on relative weed density, weed biomass, weed control efficiency, plant height, dry weight plant-1 and seed yield of soybean. Among the infested weed species in the experimental field the dominant weeds were Lindernia procumbens The results also revealed that early sowing 2 January brought about the highest seed yield 2. Two times hand weeding 20 and 40 DAS controlled the weeds most effectively and led to highest seed yield 2.
Combination effect showed that the highest seed yield 2. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin.
Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification.
An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were and years respectively.
The average age of of occupation was years to Alto Alegre and years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was years. Luminescence at the end of the tunnelling - Investigating charge transfer mechanisms and luminescence dating methods for feldspar minerals. This thesis comprises analyses of mineral physics with an application in geology and archeology. The thesis contributes to the development of feldspar luminescence dating methods in order to extend the applicable age range of feldspar luminescence dating in the Quaternary last 2.
The quest for an absolute chronology in human prehistory: By the early twentieth century there was a growing need within palaeoanthropology and prehistoric archaeology to find a way of dating fossils and artefacts in order to know the age of specific specimens, but more importantly to establish an absolute chronology for human prehistory. The radiocarbon and potassium-argon dating methods revolutionized palaeoanthropology during the last half of the twentieth century.
However, prior to the invention of these methods there were attempts to devise chemical means of dating fossil bone. The invention of the fluorine dating method marked a significant advance in the quest for absolute dating in palaeoanthropology, but it also highlights interesting problems and issues relating to the ability of palaeoanthropologists and chemists to bring together different skills and bodies of knowledge in order successfully to develop and apply the fluorine dating method.
U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion. Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite Temora I - The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses error Fission track dating method: Study of neutron flux uniformity in some irradiation positions of IEA-R1 reactor.
The fission track dating method considers only the thermal neutron fission tracks, to subtract the other contributions sample irradiations with a cadmium cover was performed. The neutron flux cadmium influence was studied.
FB performed almost flawlessly Response latency was slower as temporal remoteness of future dates increased. Within the future timespan, FB's…. Study of two new methods of geochronometry: Second, a new ESR dating method has been developed using fossil dental enamel which is rich in U-content 10 - ppm.
Both methods were applied to Arago Cave Tautavel, France: The methodical approach for assessment of recruiting state using the integral index of recruiting quality, and methodical approach for choice of recruiting methods using factor analysis are proposed in the article.
The methodical approach for using up-to- date recruiting methods is proposed. Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue.
Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.
Clocks in the Rocks
Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. Different micro dating methods have been developed in recent years, the advantages and disadvantages are simply introduced at first. Geological samples of chert display some of the characteristics of electron spin resonance ESR signals of quartz.
When chert is heated in a fireplace, most of these signals are annealed. The signals grow again in fire-heated chert buried in archaeological sites, as a result of internal and external radiation doses. The date of the heating event can be determined from the acquired dose AD and the dose rate. The E' and Al signals are best suited for dating. Although many cherts, when heated to a sufficient temperature, acquire a carbon radical C signal that largely obscures the E' signal, it can be subtracted from digitized spectra.
The E' signal also appears to saturate at relatively low doses, restricting the time range of dating to between and ka, depending on the dose rates. The Al signal shows no saturation, but is also interfered with by organic signals, present in burnt and unburned flint. These can also be subtracted to reveal the ''pure'' Al signal.
Clocks in the Rocks
At Nahr Ibrahim, the age c. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater. Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters.
Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr 81 Kr and 85 Kr possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries.
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Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled K activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas.
Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples. Development and application of a method for ivory dating by analyzing radioisotopes to distinguish legal from illegal ivory.
The age determination of elephant ivory provides necessary and crucial information for all criminal prosecution authorities enforcing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The knowledge of the age of ivory allows to distinguish between pre-convention, hence legal material and ivory deriving from recent, illegal poaching incidents. The commonly applied method to determine the age of ivory is radiocarbon dating in the form of bomb pulse dating , which however will fade out soon. This work provides an enhancement of the radiocarbon dating method by supplementary determination of the isotope profile of Sr and the two thorium isotopes Th and Th.
This combined analysis allows for a precise and unambiguous age determination of ivory. We provided calibration curves for all involved radionuclides by analyzing ivory samples with known age and investigated a new method for the extraction of strontium from ivory. The introduction of macros in try calculation sheets allows the automatic application of various dating models using unsupported '' Pb data from a data base.
The calculation books the contain the models have been modified to permit the implementation of these macros.
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This report contains a detailed description of: Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. Beyond the intrinsic interest of reconstructing the history of taxonomic diversification, time-calibrated trees timetrees for short, as used throughout below are required in many types of comparative analyses, where branch lengths are used to assess the conservation importance of lineages, correlation between characters, or to assess phylogenetic niche conservatism, among other uses.
Improvements in dating the TOL would thus benefit large segments of the biological community, ranging from conservation biology and ecology through functional biology and paleontology. Recently, progress has been made on several fronts: Combined paleontological and molecular dating has also progressed through the insertion of extinct taxa into data matrices, which allows incorporation of their phylogenetic uncertainty into the dating analysis.
A new method for measuring bioturbation rates in sandy tidal flat sediments based on luminescence dating. A high-resolution chronology, consisting of thirty-six OSL The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation.
This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories.
This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth.
During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. In the development of dating methods , varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. Isotopic method using xenon for assessing placental blood flow and for detecting light-for- dates babies.
A method for measuring uteroplacental blood flow is described and applied to mothers with light-for- dates and normally-grown fetuses. The two groups of fetuses showed a significant difference in their clearance rates, the importance of which is discussed in terms of diagnosis and management. Dating by fission track method: Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis.
Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. Methods for using argon to age- date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting. Argon can be used as a tracer for age- dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap , years not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers.
Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age- date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater. Progress in radiocarbon dating. The article concerns radiocarbon dating , the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry.
Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. Optically stimulated luminescence OSL dating of shallow marine sediments to develop an analysis method of late Quaternary geodynamics.