During the Tang dynasty bars were often attended by Iranian or Sogdian waitresses who performed dances for clients. He then converted to Islam. By the 14th century, the total population of Muslims in China had grown to 4 million. In order to contain the violence, the Ming administration instituted a policy where all West and Central Asian males were required to intermarry with native Chinese females, hence assimilating them into the local population.
Their descendants are today known as the Hui people. In the frontier districts of Sichuan , numerous half Chinese-Tibetans were found.
Tibetan women were glad to marry Chinese traders and soldiers. Chinese men also married Turkic Uyghur women in Xinjiang from to Sometimes poverty influenced Uyghur women to marry Chinese.
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These marriages were not recognized by local mullahs since Muslims women were not allowed to marry non-Muslim men under Islamic law. This did not stop the women because they enjoyed advantages, such as not being subject to certain taxes. Uyghur women married to Chinese also did not have to wear a veil and they received their husband's property upon his death. These women were forbidden from being buried in Muslim graves.
The children of Chinese men and Uyghur women were considered as Uyghur. Some Chinese soldiers had Uyghur women as temporary wives, and after the man's military service was up, the wife was left behind or sold, and if it was possible, sons were taken, and daughters were sold. One Chinese scholar Zhang Jingsheng wrote essays in and in various Chinese journals praising the advantages of miscegenation between Russians and Chinese, saying that interracial sex would promote greater understandings between the two peoples, and produce children with the best advantages of both peoples.
European travellers noted that many Han Chinese in Xinjiang married Uyghur who were called turki women and had children with them. A Chinese was spotted with a "young" and "good looking" Uyghur wife and another Chinese left behind his Uyghur wife and child in Khotan. After , some intermarriage between Han and Uyghur peoples continued. A Han married a Uyghur woman in and had three daughters with her, and other cases of intermarriage also continued. Ever since the s, African students were allowed by the Chinese government to study in China as friendly relations with Africans and African-related people was important to CCP's "Third World" coalition.
Many African male students began to intermingle with the local Chinese women. Relationships between black men and Chinese women often led to numerous clashes between Chinese and African students in the s as well as grounds for arrest and deportation of African students. The Nanjing anti-African protests of were triggered by confrontations between Chinese and Africans. New rules and regulations were made in order to stop African men from consorting with Chinese women. Two African men who were escorting Chinese women on a Christmas Eve party were stopped at the gate and along with several other factors escalated.
The Nanjing protests lasted from Christmas Eve of to January Many new rules were set after the protests ended, including one where black men could only have one Chinese girlfriend at a time whose visits were limited to the lounge area. There is a small but growing population of mixed marriages between male African mostly Nigerian traders and local Chinese women in the city of Guangzhou where it is estimated that in there are African-Chinese families.
The state, fearing fraud marriages, has strictly regulated matters.
In order to obtain government-issued identification which is required to attend school , the children must be registered under the Chinese mother's family name. Many African fathers, fearing that in doing so, they would relinquish their parental rights, have instead chosen to not send their children to school. There are efforts to open an African-Chinese school but it would first require government authorization. Koxinga took Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine,    and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives.
In some of these Dutch wives were still captives of the Chinese. Some Dutch physical looks like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a consequence of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders. Many Tanka women conceived children with foreign men. Ernest John Eitel mentioned in how an important change had taken place among Eurasian girls, the offspring of illicit connections: Many Hong Kong born Eurasians were assimilated into the Hong Kong society by intermarriage with the Cantonese population.
Kwan was of Eurasian origin, born in in Hong Kong to a father who was a Cantonese architect and mother who is a model of British and Scottish descent. The martial artist Bruce Lee had a Cantonese father and a Eurasian mother. Ernest John Eitel controversially claimed that most "half caste" people in Hong Kong were descended exclusively from Europeans having relationship with Tanka women.
The theory that most of the Eurasian mixed race Hong Kong people are descended only from Tanka women and European men, and not ordinary Cantonese women, has been backed up by other researchers who pointed out that Tanka women freely consorted with foreigners due to the fact that they were not bound by the same Confucian traditions as the Cantonese, and having a relationship with a European man was advantageous for Tanka women, but Lethbridge criticized it as "a 'myth' propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community".
Carl Smith's study in late s on the protected women seems, to some degree, to support Ernest John Eitel's theory. Smith says that the Tankas experienced certain restrictions within the traditional Chinese social structure. Being a group marginal to the traditional Chinese society of the Puntis Cantonese , they did not have the same social pressure in dealing with Europeans. The ordinary Cantonese women did not sleep with European men, thus the Eurasian population was formed mostly from Tanka and European admixture.
They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbour with their numerous families, gradually settling on shore.
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They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women. Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated that some 2, of these Tan-ka people had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are about the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community.
The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuous re-absorption into the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony. South Asians have been living in Hong Kong throughout the colonial period, before the independence in into the nations of India and Pakistan. They migrated to Hong Kong and worked as police officers as well as army officers during colonial rule.
The early Macanese ethnic group was formed from Portuguese men intermarrying with Malay, Japanese and Indian women. In , the total population of Macao was about 4,, of which 1, were white men, 1, were white women, were male slaves, and were female slaves. In , the population increased to 4, and the breakdown was 1, white men, 2, white women, male slaves and female slaves. There is reason to speculate that large numbers of white women were involved in some forms of prostitution which would probably explain the abnormality in the ratio between men and women among the white population.
Very rarely did Chinese women of higher status agree to marry a Westerner. As Deolinda argues in one of her short stories, "even should they have wanted to do so out of romantic infatuation, they would not be allowed to. Macanese men and women also married with the Portuguese and Chinese; as a result some Macanese became indistinguishable from the Chinese or Portuguese population.
Because the majority of the Chinese population who migrated to Macao was Cantonese, Macao became a Cantonese speaking society, and other ethnic groups became fluent in Cantonese.
Most Macanese had paternal Portuguese heritage until After the handover of Macao to China in many Macanese migrated to other countries. Of the Portuguese and Macanese women who stayed in Macao, many married local Cantonese men, and so many Macanese also now have Cantonese paternal heritage. There are between 25,—46, Macanese, but only 5,—8, live in Macao, while most live in Latin America, the U.
Unlike the Macanese of Macao who are strictly of Chinese and Portuguese heritage, many Macanese living abroad have intermarried with the local population of the U. Genetic analysis of the Hazara people indicate partial Mongolian ancestry. Mongols settled in what is now Afghanistan and mixed with native populations who spoke Persian. A second wave of mostly Chagatai Mongols came from Central Asia and were followed by other Mongolic groups, associated with the Ilkhanate and the Timurids , all of whom settled in Hazarajat and mixed with the local, mostly Persian-speaking population, forming a distinct group.
It also detected Sub-Saharan African lineages in both the paternal and maternal ancestry of Hazara.. Among the Hazara's there are 7. The Indian subcontinent has a long history of inter-ethnic marriage dating back to ancient history. Various groups of people have been intermarrying for millennia in South Asia , including speakers of the Dravidian , Indo-Aryan , Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages. The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested.
This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European -speaking nomadic groups from the Near East, Anatolia and the Caucasus migrated to India. Much of this was simply conjecture , fueled by British imperialism ;  British policies of divide and rule as well as enumeration of the population into rigid categories during the tenure of British rule in India contributed towards the hardening of these segregated caste identities.
Mallory , Edwin Bryant , and others, have disputed the claim of "Aryan Invasion". Some researchers claim that genetic similarities to Europeans were more common in members of the higher ranks.
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However, other researchers have criticized and contradicted this claim. A study conducted by the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in in collaboration with Harvard Medical School , Harvard School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT analyzed half a million genetic markers across the genomes of individuals from 25 ethnic groups from 13 states in India across multiple caste groups. In Goa , a Portuguese colony in India , during the late 16th century and 17th century, there was a community of over thousand Japanese slaves and traders, who were either Japanese Christians fleeing persecution in Japan,  or young Japanese women and girls brought or captured as sexual slaves by Portuguese traders and their South Asian lascar crew members from Japan.
One example of an interracial liaison during colonial times involved Hyderabadi noblewoman Khair-un-Nissa and her relationship to Scottish resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick. The ,strong Anglo-Indian community was formed by British and Indian relationships. Such relationships have had an influence on the arts.
The novel "Two Leaves and a Bud" by Ananda depicts Indian laborer women in India being preyed upon and seduced by the British Manager Reggie Hunt after he gives them bangles and nose rings. In Ceylon present day Sri Lanka , interracial relationships between Dutch , British and Portuguese men and local women were common.
The 65,strong Burgher community was formed by the interracial marriages of Dutch and Portuguese men with local Sinhalese and Tamil women. In addition to intermarriage, inter-ethnic prostitution in India was also fairly common at the time, when British officers would frequently visit Indian nautch dancers. In the midth century, there were around 40, British soldiers but fewer than 2, British officials present in India.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, thousands of women and girls from continental Europe were also trafficked into British India and Ceylon , where they worked as prostitutes servicing both British soldiers and local Indian and Ceylonese men. As British females began arriving in British India in large numbers from the early-to-midth century, interracial marriage became increasingly uncommon in India. Interracial relationships were also despised after the events of India's First War of Independence , where Indian sepoys rebelled against the British East India Company.
The idea of protecting British female chastity from the "lustful Indian male" had a significant influence on the policies of the British Raj in order to prevent racial miscegenation between the British females and the native Indian male population.